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Source: July 1994 Volume 32 Number 3, Pages 115–125

Descriptions of the Lenni-Lenape by Some of Their Contemporaries

Hob Borgson

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As Marshall Becker noted a few years ago in his article "The Lenape of Southeastern Pennsylvania: A Brief History" *, there has recently been a great deal of archaeological interest in the Lenni-Lenape who were in this area at the time of European contact in the 17th century.

At the same time, however, we are fortunate to have a number of reports on these native people, written in the late 17th and early 18th century by contemporary observers. Among them were the noted Moravian missionaries David Zeisberger, whose numerous writings on the Lenape include a spelling book, a grammar or dictionary, and a history of the native Indians, and John Heckewelder, the author of an account of the History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania, published in 1819. Other accounts were prepared by George Howard Loskiel, also a Moravian missionary; Peter Lindestrom, an engineer in "New Sweden"; Francis Daniel Pastorious, the founder of Germantown; and William Penn himself, who, about ten months after his arrival here, in August 1683, compiled "his own account" of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indians. (The two names are used interchangeably: while the Indians called themselves the Lenni-Lenape, "the Original People", the English called them the Delawares, as they were first sighted along the Delaware River. Interestingly, the Lenape name for the Delaware River was Lenapewihittuk, the "River of the Lenape".)

From these accounts we can reconstruct the appearance, lifestyle, and customs of the Lenape.

* in the January 1985 issue of the Quarterly [Vol. XXIII, No. 1]

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We know, for example, that they were considered tall, which is to say 5'7" to 5'10" in height, tall for that period. While Zeisberger described them as being of "medium" height, Pastorious described them as "generally tall of stature". Penn, in his account, noted that, "For their Persons, they are generally tall, streight, well-built, and of singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with a lofty chin".

As to the color of their skin, Zeisberger noted, "Some are light brown, hardly to be distinguished from a brown European, did not their eyes and hair betray them." He also noted, "Their hair is jet-black and coarse, almost like the hair of a horse's mane. Their heads become gray or even white in old age, otherwise they are without exception black. The men rarely let the hair grow long." The women, on the other hand, "let the hair grow long, so that it sometimes reaches the knees". The men were also generally without facial hair: Lindestrom noted, "By nature they indeed get whiskers, but they do not wish to have any, because they think it is shameful, wherefore, when the first hairs appear they sit and always pull and pluck out the hair with the roots, so that it never gets to grow, but they look smooth on the chin as the women."

Zeisberger also observed, "The men tattoo their bodies in arm, leg or face with all manner of figures, serpents, birds or other animals, which are marked out by pricking the skin with a needle, powder or soot being afterward rubbed into the punctures."

With regard to their complexion, Penn similarly noted, "I have seen as comely European-like faces among them of both, as on your side of the Sea; and truly an Italian Complexion hath not much more of the White, and the Noses of several of them have as much of the Roman."

Based in part on their appearance, Penn developed a rather imaginative theory about their coming to America. "For their Original," he wrote, "I am ready to believe them of the Jewish Race, I mean, of the stock of the Ten Tribes, and that for the following Reasons; first, they were to go to a Land not planted or known, which to be sure Africa and Asia were, if not Europe; and he that extended that extraordinary Judgment upon them, might make the Passage not uneasie to them, as it is not impossible in itself [to go] from the Easter-most parts of Asia to the Wester-most of America. In the next place, I find them of Countenance and their children of lively Resemblance, that a man might think himself in Dukesplace or Berry-street [two streets in the center of the Jewish quarter] in London, when he seeth them. But this is not all, they agree in Rites, they reckon by Moons: they offer their first Fruits, they have a kind of Feast of Tabernacles; they are said to keep their Altar upon twelve Stones; their Mourning, a year, Customs of Women, with many things that do not now occur."

(While his suggestion that the Lenape might have been descended from the lost tribe of Israel is perhaps unique, his conjecture that they might have passed "from the Easter-most parts of Asia to the Wester-most [parts] of America" is equally interesting. It was not until the 1850s that the hypothesis of a migration from Asia to America led to the peopling of the new world was seriously proposed.

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As Brian Fagan observed in his Men of the Earth, "A wise and sober scholar named Samuel Havens summarized the American myths and legends about the origins of the pre-Columbian Indian in an essay on American archaeology published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1856. He was one of the first to conclude that the New World was settled from across the Bering Strait, designating the earliest Americans as authentic Asiastics who migrated into America at an unknown date. Most anthropologists now [1974] agree with Havens [and William Penn] that the first American set foot in the New World by way of the Bering Strait or from Kamchatka via the Commander and Aleutian islands.")

Concerning their dress, Heckewelder wrote, "In ancient times [before European contact] the dress of the Indian was made of the skins of animals and feathers. This clothing, they say, was not only warmer, but lasted much longer than any woollen goods they have since purchased of the white people. They can dress any skin, even that of the buffaloe, so that it becomes quite soft and supple, and a good buffaloe or bear skin blanket will serve them many years without wearing out. Beaver or raccoon skin blankets are also pliant, warm, and desirable; they sew together as many of these skins as necessary, carefully setting the hair or fur all the same way, so that the blanket or covering is smooth. .. . Some [women] made themselves long frocks of fine fur, and the women's petticoats in the winter season were also made of them, otherwise [of] dressed deer skins, the same as their shirts, leggings and shoes. ... With large rib bones of the elk and buffaloe they shaved the hair off the skins they dressed, and even now they say that they can clean a skin as well with a well prepared rib-bone as with a knife."

"The blankets made of feathers," he also noted, "were also warm and durable. The feathers, generally those of the turkey and goose, are so curiously arranged and interwoven together with thread or twine, which they prepare from the rind or bark of the wild hemp and nettle, that the ingenuity and skill cannot be denied them."

"Their dress is light," Zeisberger observed, "they do not hang much clothing upon themselves. If an Indian has a Match-coat, that is a blanket of the smaller sort, a shirt and brich [breech] cloth and a pair of leggins, he thinks himself well dressed. ... Their shoes are made of deer skin, which they prepare themselves, the women being particularly skilled in doing this and working in all manner of designs[.]"

The Lenape, by the 17th century, were no longer nomadic, but lived in villages of about 20 or 30 people. (Becker has estimated that "the total population [in this area] may have been as high as 1000 people".)

"Their Houses," Penn observed, "are Mats, or Bark of Trees set on Poles, in the fashion of an English barn, but out of the power of the Winds, for they are hardly higher than a Man; they lie on Reeds or Grass." They also knew, and used, the principle of the ridge pole, as observed by Lindestrom in the 1650s and by Zeisberger and Loskiel a century later, using it principally in the long house, a structure used primarily for ceremonial purposes and ranging in length from 30 feet to more than 100 feet.

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Their huts, as Zeisberger described them, "are built either of bast (tree-bark peeled off in the summer) or the walls made of boards covered with bast. They are low structures. Fire is made in the middle of the hut under an opening where the smoke escapes. ... Among the Delawares each family prefers to have its own house, hence they are small." He also noted that the huts were "lined with rushes in order to keep out the cold, roofed they were with bark, even as is the case now, though sometimes rushes or long, dry reed-grass served the purpose".

Their families apparently were usually started when the bride and groom were still of a relatively young age. "When the Young Women are fit for Marriage," Penn wrote, "they wear something upon their heads for an Advertisement, but so as their Faces are hardly to be seen, but when they please: The Age they Marry at, if Women, is about thirteen or fourteen; if Men, seventeen to eighteen; they are rarely older." Zeisberger similarly observed, "Marriages are contracted early in life, when the men are eighteen or twenty years of age and women fourteen or fifteen."

"In the wooing of the bride," Zeisberger also noted, "custom demands that if an Indian would proceed honorably and at the same time have assurance that his wife when married will remain with him, he first sends a present . . to [another] Indian to whom he has declared his purpose and who [then] hands them to a friend of the person fixed upon, speaks for him and presses his suit. Thereupon the friends assemble, examine the present, [and] propose the matter to the girl, who generally decides agreeably to the wish of her friends and relatives. ... If it is decided to decline the proposal, the present is simply returned and understood to be a friendly negative. In case the match is agreeable, [the suitor is so informed that his proposal has been accepted, and] the girl is led to the dwelling of the groom, without further ceremony. The things constituting the present are divided among the friends and the belts of wampum cut and a piece [is] given to each."

Zeisberger also observed, "Occasionally parents who have a son will agree with parents who have a daughter that in time their children will marry. As, however, they can neither persuade nor compel their children against their wishes it in the end depends upon the children whether the match shall be consummated."

"Families," he further reported, "have from four to six children. More than that is unusual."

The responsibilities of the men and women were clearly defined, Zeisberger noted. "The men hunt," he wrote, "secure meat [and hides] for the household, ... build houses or huts, and also help their wives clear the land for cultivation and build fences around it. The duties of the women are cooking, finding fire-wood, planting and reaping.

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They plant corn, principally, making of this their bread, which is baked in ashes, and preparing with it various dishes." (Despite these many duties, Heckewelder noted, "The work of the women is not hard or dificult. They are both able and willing to do it, and always perform with cheerfulness.")

As William Penn reported, the Lenapes "cleared large Tracts for cultivation near their villages".

In these cultivated fields adjacent to the village, Zeisberger reported, "They planted corn, beans, [and] pumpkins, which they had at that time. Their hoe was a bone from the shoulder blade of the deer, which is broad at one end and narrow at the other. With this bound to a stick they worked the soil. A turtle-shell, sharpened by means of a stone and similarly attached to a stick served much the same purpose. A kind of tobacco known as Brazilian tobacco, they also had; to the present day [1779-1780] this tobacco, which has but small leaves, is called Indian tobacco."

"On the corn plantations," Lindestrom, noted, the corn is planted in square hills [so far apart] that one can conveniently walk, between the hills, similar to the hop hills in Sweden, and in each hill 6 or 7 grains are set; [the stalk] grows so high that it reaches an ell above [a] man's head, and on each stalk [are] 6 or 7 ears, with long and narrow pointed leaves[.]"

Penn similarly reported that their principal crops were "Pease, Beans, Squashes, Pumkins, Water Melons [and] Maze".

"The principal food of the Indians," Heckewelder reported, "consists of game which they take or kill in the woods, the fish out of the waters, and the maize, potatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes, cucumbers, melons, and occasionally cabbages and turnips, which they raise in their fields; they [also] make use of various roots of plants, fruits, nuts, and berries out of the woods, by way of relish or as a seasoning to their victuals, sometimes also from necessity. They commonly make two meals every day, which, they say, is enough."

"Their Diet," Penn noted, "is Maze, or Indian Corn, divers ways prepared: sometimes Roasted in the Ashes, sometimes beaten and Boyled with Water, which they call Homine, they also make Cakes, not unpleasant to eat; They have Likewise several sorts of Beans and Pease that are good Nourishment: and the Woods and Rivers are their Larder."

Heckewelder was similarly impressed by the variety of ways in which corn was prepared for the table. "The Indians," he wrote, "have a number of manners of preparing their corn. They make an excellent pottage of it, by boiling it with fresh or dried meat (the latter pounded), dried pumpkins, dry beans, and chestnuts. They sometimes sweeten it with sugar or molasses from the sugar-maple tree. Another very good dish is prepared by boiling with their corn or maize, the washed kernels of the shell-bark or hickory nut. They pound the nuts in a block or mortar, so that by stirring up the pounded nuts the broken shells separate from the liquor, which from the pounded kernels assumes the appearance of milk. This being put into the kettle and mixed with the pottage gives it a rich and agreeable flavour."

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(Although Lindestrom described them as "miserable cooks" who "never cook great dishes", it is generally conceded that the Delaware woman, as Paul Wallace put it, "spent a good deal of time and ingenuity in the preparation of food" and was "unsurpassed as a cook".)

A wide variety of foodstuffs was supplied by the larder of "the Woods and Rivers". Penn observed in a letter, "The fruits that I found in the Woods are the White and Black Mulberries, Chestnuts, Walnuts, Plums, Strawberries, Cranberries and Grapes of divers sorts. There are also Peaches and very good and in great quantity - not an Indian Plantation [is] without them", while "of living creatures," he noted, "Fish, Fowl, the Deer, Bear, Beaver, Raccoon, Rabbit, Squirrel, Wild-Cat, Panther, Otter, [and] Musk-Rat [are plentiful], Also Turkey, Forty & Fifty Pounds Weight, pidgeons, and Partridges [are] in Abundance. The Swan, Goose, Ducks, Snipe, etc."

"Fishes which are found in New Sweden," Lindestrom noted, "are these: Starfish, sturgeons, shad, [which] is a kind of large fish, like salmon, [and] runs against the stream like salmon, is white with black stripes right across the fish; [it is] a very fine flavored and excellent tasting fish; pikes, hornpikes, black striped perches with a gold glittering color on the scales like that of the carp, haddocks, shrimps, lobsters, sea-turtles, crabs, sea-spiders, [which] can be eaten, as large as turtles, [and] have houses over them like turtles, but a yellow horn, [they] have many feet like [a] crab[.] ... Oysters are found on the great oyster banks in and outside of the river; [also] mussels and eels."

(Penn observed, "We sweat and toil to live; their pleasure feeds them, I mean their Hunting, Fishing and Fowling, and their Table is spread every where; they eat twice a day, Morning and Evening; their Seats and Tables are the Ground.")

The implements used in hunting and fishing, like those used in cultivation, were also of the "stone age". "Their knives," Zeisberger noted, "were made of flint, not in the form of our knives but shaped like arrow heads, e.g., triangular, quite thin and with the two larger sides sharp. With such knives they stripped off the skin of deer and other game. Their hatchets are also made of stone and [are] about the length of a hand, smoothed and sharpened, secured to a wooden handle. ... For the chase they used bow and arrow, both made of wood, the point of the arrow being of flint in the shape of a lengthened triangle, sharp and pointed, securely tied to the shaft."

"Kettles and pots used for cooking," Zeisberger reported, "they made of clay mixed with sea shells, pounded very fine. After the pot had been shaped it was burned hard in the fire." (They started their fires by what we today call fire-by-friction: "The fire materials of those days," Zeisberger further reported, "consisted of a dry piece of wood or board and a round dry stick. The latter was placed upon the board and turned or twirled with great swiftness, both hands being used, until there was smoke and fire. This, however, was done only in case their fire had gone out, which they were generally very careful to keep burning.")

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The Lenape women apparently showed the same imagination and ingenuity in their preparation of meat and fish that they did in their cooking of maize and squash. "Their meat," Heckewelder wrote, "they either boil, roast, or broil. Their roasting is done by running a wooden spit through the meat, sharpened at each end, which they place near the fire and occasionally turn. They broil on clean coals, drawn off from the fire for that purpose." Zeisberger noted, incidentally, that the "Food which they prepare must be well cooked and well done; they do not like anything rare or raw. Meat and fish," he reported, "must be so thoroughly cooked that they fall apart."

The woods were also the source of the Lenape medicines.

In this connection, Heckewelder observed, "The Materia Medica of the Indians consists of various roots and plants known to themselves, the properties of which they are not fond of disclosing to strangers. They make considerable use of the barks of trees, such as the white and black oak, the white walnut, of which they make pills, the cherry, dogwood, maple, birch, and several others. They prepare and compound these medicines in different ways, which they keep a profound secret."

Similarly, Zeisberger noted, "There are Indians who have considerable knowledge of the virtues of roots and herbs, learned from their fathers, and who bring about relief. They are well paid for their services." More specifically, he reported, "Wounds and external injuries the Indians treat very successfully, knowing what application to make. In the curing of snake bite, [for example,] they are particularly capable. For the bite of every variety of snake they have a special Beson. ... With the white walnut bark, used externally and internally, they effect many cures. Laid upon flesh wounds this relieves pain at once, prevents swelling, and accelerates healing. Applied externally in case of tooth-ache, head-ache or pain in the limbs, this brings speedy relief."

And Penn wrote, "In sickness, [they are] impatient to be cured, and for it give anything, especially for their children to whom they are extremely natural; they drink at those times a Teran or Decoction of some Roots in Spring Water; and if they eat any flesh, it must be of the female of the Creature[.]"

Heckewelder also noted that the herbs or medicine used, however, "are frequently mixed with superstitious practices, calculated to guard against the powers of witchcraft, in which, unfortunately, they have a strong belief". (In this connection, Gladys Tantaquidgeon, in her monograph on Delaware folk medicine and beliefs, compiled in the 1940s, noted that the practitioner's first move is to go out and seek a plant of the desired species to be used in making the medicine for the treatment of the particular ailment. "After coming upon the first plant of the variety required," she reported, "he does not gather it but performs a ritual to appease the spirit of the plant. A small hole is dug towards the east near its base and a small quantity of native tobacco [is] placed within. The herbalist then lights his pipe and smokes, meanwhile making ... [an] appeal to the Creator and to the spiritual forces which govern vegetation. . . Upon the conclusion of this propitiatory rite the medicine person searches out another plant of the same species, which, if clean and healthy looking, is then gathered [for use in the cure].")

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An important part of the Lenape health regimen was the sweat bath. Heckewelder noted, "The sweat oven is the first thing that an Indian has recourse to when he feels the least [bit] indisposed: it is the place to which the wearied traveler, hunter, or warrior looks for relief from the fatigue he has endured, the cold he has caught, or the restoration of his lost appetite." Zeisberger similarly observed, "It is a custom of the Indians, even when they are tired or have caught a cold, to go into a sweating oven several times a week."

"For this purpose," he continued, "every town has on its outskirts a sweating oven. It is built of timber and boards, covered completely with earth. They crawl in through a small opening, the latter being closed as soon as they have gone in. A fire [is] usually built in front of the opening be- fore they go in and hot stones [are] placed in the middle of the inclosed area. Not long after they have entered, they are covered with perspiration, then they crawl out and cool off, returning to repeat the same thing three or four times. Women have their own sweating ovens though they do not use them as commonly as do the men."

"If they dye," Penn wrote, "they bury them with their Apparel, be they Men or Women, and the nearest of Kin fling in something with them, as a token of their Love: Their Mourning is blacking of their faces, which they continue for a year; They are choice of the Graves of their Dead; for least [lest] they should be lost by time, and fall to common use, they pick off the Grass that grows upon them, and heap the fallen Earth with great care and exactness." (This was particularly important since, as Zeisberger noted, the burying places were "at some distance from the towns".)

Heckewelder also observed that they "pay great respect to the memory of the dead, and commit their remains to the ground with becoming ceremonies". "These honours of 'mourning over the corpse1," he reported, "are paid to all; the poor and humble, as well as the rich, great, and powerful; the difference consists only of the number of mourners, the undistinguished Indian having few besides his immediate relations and friends, and sometimes only these. Women ... are not treated on their death with any less respect than the men, and the greatest honours are paid to the remains of the wives of renowned warriors or veteran chiefs, particularly if they were descended themselves of a high family[.]"

"Their Government," Penn reported, "is by Kings, which they call Sachemos, and these by succession, but always on the Mothers side; for instance, the children of him that is now King, will not succeed [him], but his Brother by the Mother, or the children of his Sister, whose sons (and after them the children of his Daughters) will reign; for the Woman inherits; the Reason being they render for this way of descent, is, that their issue may not be spurious."

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(Zeisberger, on the other hand, explained that since the chief must always be a member of the tribe in which he presides, "The sons of the chief cannot inherit their father's dignity, for the reason that they are not and cannot be, according to established usages, members of the tribe, inasmuch as children do not inherit tribal rights from the father but from the mother. No Indian," he further reported, "will marry a person in his own tribe, as he is too closely related to it all.")

Despite his position as king or chief, "In externals," Zeisberger reported, "a chief has no advantages above others. He must provide for his own maintenance, for no one is under any obligation to supply his wants."

In presiding over the tribe, "Every King," Penn also observed, "hath his Council, and that consists of all the Old and Wise men of his Nation, which perhaps is two hundred People: nothing of moment is undertaken be it War, Peace, Selling of Land or Trafficking, without advising them; and which is more, with the Young People too. 'Tis admirable to consider, how Powerful the Kings are, and yet they move by the Breath of their People." The meetings of the council were described by Zeisberger: "The council meetings," he wrote, "are as quiet and orderly as if they were acts of devotion. The powerful chief, either himself or through a speaker, sets forth the subjects that shall engage the attention of the council in a solemn speech. ... Each counselor has the liberty to utter his sentiments and having made his speech, sits down. No one interrupts the speaker but all sit silent and attentive!!.] ... A subject is often very thoroughly and extendedly discussed. The chiefs and counsellors in turn give their opinions and suggestions. When all have spoken, one of them is called upon to sum up the principal parts of all the speeches in a concise manner." After this summary, deliberations begin and a decision is made.

Rather surprisingly, in view of his belief that each person should worship his God in accordance with his own conscience, Penn reported, "These poor People are under a dark Night in things relating to Religion, to be sure, the Tradition of it; yet they believe in God and Immortality; without the help of Metaphysicks; for they say, There is a great King that made them, who dwells in a glorious Country to the Southward of them, and that the Souls of the good shall go thither, where they shall live again. Their Worship," he added, "consists of two parts, Sacrifice and Cantico. Their Sacrifice is their first Fruits; the first and fattest Buck they kill, goeth to the fire, where he is burnt with a Mournful Ditty of him that performeth the Ceremony, but with such a marvelous Fervency and Labour of Body, that he will even sweat to a foam. The other part is their Cantico, performed by round-Dances, sometimes Words, sometimes Songs, then Shouts, two being in the middle that begin, and by Singing and Drumming on a Board direct the Chorus: Their Postures in the Dance are very Antick and differing, but all keep measure. This is done with equal Earnestness and Labour, but great appearance of Joy."

(It may have been the element of sacrifice in their ritual that led Penn to observe that in things relating to religion the Lenape were "under a dark night"; "Worship and sacrifice," Zeisberger also noted, "have obtained among them from the earliest times, being perhaps handed down from their ancestors."

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Or it may have been their belief in a sort of pantheism, as suggested earlier in their ritual in the use of herbs as medicine. As Zeisberger also observed, "They believe in numerous spirits or subordinate deities. Almost all animals and elements are looked upon as spirits, one exceeding the other in dignity and power. There is scarcely an Indian who does not believe that one or more of these spirits has not been particularly given [to] him to assist him and make him prosper. ... This, they claim, has been made known to them in a dream, even as their religious belief and witchcraft is alleged to have been made known to them in a dream.")

At the same time, Zeisberger noted, "They believe and from time immemorial [have] believed that there is an Almighty Being who has created heaven and earth and man and all things else. This they have learned from their ancestors, but where the dwelling place of the Deity is they know not. They have always heard that whoever lives a virtuous life, refrains from stealing, murder and immorality, would at death go to some good place where conditions would be better than here, where there would be a superfluity of everything and a happy life of joy and dancing. On the contrary, whoever lives an evil life would arrive at no great place but have to wander about sad and unhappy."

While the Cantico was a part of their religious ceremonies, singing and dancing were not restricted to these occasions. "If the young are at home and not on the chase," Zeisberger noted, "hardly a night passes without a dance. The women, who always follow the men, act with decency and becoming modesty[.] ... They neither jump nor skip, but ... [the] men shout and leap and stomp with such violence that the ground trembles under their feet." (Their shouting, he reported, could "be heard two or three miles away".)

He also reported that the young men "often wrestle to test their strength" but that the "game of dice is the most popular of amusements", adding that they "may devote days in succession to it, always gambling on the throw". The dice were made of "pits of wild plum, not cubical but oval shaped and smooth, black on one side and yellow on the other. These they each in turn raise in a wooden vessel and throw forcibly to the ground."

Overall, Zeisberger felt that the North American Indian, in general, was "by nature lazy as far as work is concerned", although, he noted, they had "both the capacities and skill for work, if they only had the inclination". "If they are at home and not engaged in the chase," he observed, "they lie all day on their britchen [bunks made of boards] and sleep; when night comes they go to the dance or wander about in disorderly fashion."

Finally, Zeisberger noted that the "Indians usually treat one another with kindness and civility and in their bearing toward one another are modest."

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Heckewelder described them in this way: "They are, it is true," he wrote, "revengeful to their enemies, to those who wilfully do them injury, who assault, abuse or treat them with contempt. ... [But] The tender passions operate no less powerfully on them as those of an opposite character, and they are as warm and sincere in their friendship as they are vindictive in their enmities. Nay, I will venture to assert that there are those among them who would lay down their life for a friend."

That is the Lenape, as described by some of their contemporaries.



Fagan, Brian M., Men of the Earth. Boston: Little Brown & Co. 1974

Heckewelder, John, History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations who once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States, [ed. by W. L. Reichel. Philadelphia, 1876

Lindstrflm, Peter Martensson, Geographica America : with an Account of the Delaware Indians [trans, by Amandus Johnson] Philadelphia: The Swedish Colonial Society, 1925

Penn, William, William Penn, His Own Account of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indians, 1683 [ed. by Albert Cook Myers] Moylan, Pa.: Albert Cook Myers, 1937

Philadelphia City Planning Commission, Philadelphia Region When Known as Coaquahannock [map]. 1934

Tantaquidgeon, Gladys, Folk Medicine of the Delaware and Related Algonkian Indians. Harrisburg, Pa.: The Pennsylvania Historic & Museum Commission, 1972

Wallace, Paul A. W., Indians in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa.: The Penn- sylvania Historic & Museum Commission, 1968 [3d printing]

Zeisberger, David, History of Northern American Indians [ed. by Archer Butler Hulbert and William Nathaniel Schwarze] Columbus, Ohio: Press of F. J. Herr, 1910


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